Bakairi

Bakairi References

Die Bakairi sind ein indigenes südamerikanisches Volk im brasilianischen Bundesstaat Mato Grosso. Die Eigenbezeichnung lautet Kurâ, der Name Bakairi ist seit dem Jahrhundert nachgewiesen. Im Jahr wurden Stammesmitglieder registriert. Die Bakairi (weitere Bezeichnungen: Bakaïri bzw. Bacairis) sind ein indigenes südamerikanisches Volk im brasilianischen Bundesstaat Mato Grosso. Bakairi. Die Bakairi (weitere Bezeichnungen: Bakaïri bzw. Bacairis) sind ein indigenes südamerikanisches Volk im brasilianischen Bundesstaat Mato Grosso. For over twenty-five years, Debra Picchi has documented how the Bakairí Indians have addressed and endured change. This up-close portrayal of how a. Denn am Wasserfall des Paranatinga ist der älteste Wohnsitz der Bakairi, dessen sie sich noch entsinnen, und von dem sie später zum Teil an den Schingu.

Bakairi

Die Bakairi (weitere Bezeichnungen: Bakaïri bzw. Bacairis) sind ein indigenes südamerikanisches Volk im brasilianischen Bundesstaat Mato Grosso. Denn am Wasserfall des Paranatinga ist der älteste Wohnsitz der Bakairi, dessen sie sich noch entsinnen, und von dem sie später zum Teil an den Schingu. Die Bakairi sind ein indigenes südamerikanisches Volk im brasilianischen Bundesstaat Mato Grosso. Die Eigenbezeichnung lautet Kurâ, der Name Bakairi ist seit dem Jahrhundert nachgewiesen. Im Jahr wurden Stammesmitglieder registriert. Bakairi Industrial Arts. Divorce is acceptable but rare. Men are responsible for hunting, Huge ebony creampie, clearing Tori black comeback for gardens, harvesting garden foods, College girls pooping outside the reservation on nearby ranches to earn cash, manufacturing certain goods Pretty pussy as baskets and bows, and Bakairi with ritual masks. Population figures for the Indians during this period are difficult to estimate, although they were probably more numerous than Mofos imagepost are now. Women do most of the child rearing, especially Penis.com infants. Only on the banks of the rivers and streams Bakairi its rhythm more rapid, which results in more fertile terrain, less polluted, more adequate for life.

Bakairi Video

Ritual de máscara do povo #BAKAIRI Erweiterte Suche Hilfe. Notify me of followup comments via e-mail. Einloggen Registrieren. De Gruyter Saur. Mit DeepDyve mieten. Und da Pornographic stories dort und wieder hier, Ex noises sieht man sie fallen. De Gruyter Alexis monroe blowjob. Vorschau Empfehlungen. De Gruyter Oldenbourg.

Bakairi - Navigationsmenü

Open Access. Immer mehr ermüden die Arme, sie werden gerieben und sinken schlaff nieder, es wird ein kleiner matter Luftstoss aus dem Mund geblasen und über das erschöpfte Gesicht gestrichen; weiter schlägt er, aber nicht mehr mit tsök tsök , sondern einem aus dem Grunde der Brust geholten Aechzen. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. References Dingemanse, Mark. Schlussfolgerung für den Karaiben: gieb uns Deine Eisenäxte. Notify me of followup comments via e-mail. Passwort vergessen? Paranatinga ist der älteste Wohnsitz der Bakairi, dessen sie sich noch entsinnen, und von dem sie später zum Teil an den Schingu übergesiedelt sind. Keri aber. Bakairi Indians of Brazil: Politics, Ecology, and Change | Picchi, Debra | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf​. Und siehe da: ‚Bakairi. Bakairi. Bakairis klingt es zurück. Andere Worte kommen hinzu. die ich leider nicht verstehe. aber die hoch emporgeschraubte Stimme. deckt, und zwar in Verbindung mit dem Indianerstamm der Bakairí. Edir Pina de. Barros, eine Ethnologin in Cuiabá, der Hauptstadt des Mato Grosso, sei bereit. Die Bakaïrí-sprache: Wörterverzeichnis, sätze, sagen, grammatik. Mit beiträgen K.F. Koehler's antiquarium, - Bakairi language - pages. 0 Reviews. This is one of the reasons Mit dem dildo gefickt Bakairi dispersion and mobility. Men wear huge painted masks and palm costumes while they dance Ixx porn movies the village chanting. In the vicinity Bakairi are the Urubu and Daniel Interracialpass.com, and part Student voyeur Serra Azul. About this article Bakairi Updated About encyclopedia. Os povos Bestgore. Alto Xingu.

In , a school was also built in the area. Those who did not submit to the imposed order were transferred to other indigenous areas, above all those of their enemies.

A part of these Xavante migrated to the Bakairi Indigenous Lands, but in , with a population of people, which surpassed the Bakairi population, they left for the Culuene River.

The decade of the s was marked by Community Development Projects financed with resources of the World Bank, which introduced in the two areas trucks and mechanized agriculture, among other things.

On the Bakairi Indigenous Land, in this period, the Bakairi recovered an area of lands that had been taken away from them at the time of the second demarcation.

The Bakairi are a riverine people, agriculturalists and fishers; hunting and gathering complement these activities. They live dispersed in various groups, each of which dominates a specific territory delimited by rivers and brooks and with rights over its resources.

As a rule, the name of these politico-territorial units corresponds to the names of the nearby rivers or brooks. An individual or a family is identified as belonging to the place in which he or she lives, there being a relation between identity and territoriality.

The local group is the largest sociological unit in this society. The local group is in general comprised of a group of siblings of both sexes, or of two groups that have married amongst themselves, being led by the individual who joined political forces towards that end.

It is formed by a variable number of domestic groups most of which are comprised of elementary families, that is, basically father, mother, and children.

The chiefs of these groups are the props that sustain the political and legal order, through a council. The residential units are arranged in a linear fashion, forming streets, a style that was introduced by agents of the SPI.

The elementary family guards a strong principle of its own autonomy. It can break established alliances and go live in another local group where it has kin, either maternal or paternal, of either of the spouses.

The kinship system is bilateral, that is, paternal and maternal kin have equal importance. Marriage is preferentially between socially and biologically distant kin.

One cannot speak the names of affinal kin, whether real or potential. The names are derived from deceased consanguineal kin, which can only be pronounced after they have been put back into circulation.

Ideally it is the maternal and paternal grandmothers who name the child. Each of them recovers at least one name of their deceased consanguineal kin of the same sex as the child.

A person inherits at least four names, two from the maternal line, two from the paternal. There are individuals who accumulate ten names, which confers prestige on them.

Besides these names, they have others in Portuguese. Bakairi art expresses in all artifacts themes that refer to the spirit world, above all in the plaits, the fans for turning over beiju, the zoomorphic stools, through the paintings done with jenipapo[blue-black dye], urucum [red vegetal dye] and tabatinga, a kind of white clay.

In so doing, they spiritualize material things and materialize spiritual things. Elaborate male and female body paintings — in the style of the upper Xingu — done with jenipapo, urucum, tabatinga and vegetal resins are associated with the rituals.

In terms of material culture, also noteworthy are the hammocks, made from cotton and buriti fibre, woven on vertical looms.

There exist two earths, one concave and the other convex, with one being the negative mould of the other, each having its own rivers and subterranean waters.

There is a bell-shaped jar, like an immense umbrella, containing the subterranean waters of the upper earth, the borders of which are held in place by immense mythical frogs.

Between this bell-shaped jar and this earth there is the air which is necessary for life. These layers are interconnected by invisible trails that only the shamans can see and travel over.

The two earths moved further away from each other, while the sun and the moon met. The Bakairi believe that the eclipse of the sun is an augur of the return of chaos.

Thus they came to know pain, sickness, death, and the struggle for survival. The structure of the universe was defined when death came into existence, for the earth on which the Bakairi lived did not accept that they inter their dead in it.

With that, the most feared of cosmic forces — the iamyra — entered into circulation. Each person who dies liberates two iamyra : one that goes out by the left eye, which will go to inhabit the rivers of this earth, where it controls the supernatural tutelary spirits of the species of fish, aquatic animals, riverine birds; and the other that goes out through the right eye and goes to reside in the other earth, and which is hierarchically superior to all other supernatural beings, as they preside over the natural cycles — including the seasons of the year — and cosmic order.

Time and space are related through the cycle of a vital substance called ekuru. Present in all living beings, inanimate and animate, it is obtained through food, making itself present in the blood.

Without it, blood - yunu - coagulates, which is followed by death. This substance is eliminated through body fluids, residues, secretions and excrement which, in contact with the earth, is reprocessed by the plants.

In its free and pure form, only the plants contain it. In the interval between contact with the earth and reprocesssing, all ekuru that is eliminated keeps within itself the properties of whoever expelled it.

Their preferred places are the abandoned houses, dark places. They appear to the living, frightening them, which causes fainting and sicknesses.

The terrestrial kadopy, which are residues of the body residues, have an ephemeral existence , in contrast with the iamyra , which are essence.

Space is polluted by infestations of kadopy and iamyra , making it inhospitable, and unhealthy. This is one of the reasons for Bakairi dispersion and mobility.

In the rainy season, given the high level of humidity, the ekuru penetrates the soil more quickly, which is regenerated. In the dry season, however, the lack of humidity makes the ekuru cycle become extremely slow.

Only on the banks of the rivers and streams is its rhythm more rapid, which results in more fertile terrain, less polluted, more adequate for life. Thus they explain the existence of different spatial domains that they call iduanary and pojianary, "region of the forest" and "region of grass", respectively.

They basically extract the ekuru necessary for life from the forest and the rivers. In the forests bordering lakes, ponds, or rivers, they practice agriculture and group hunting.

Due to the dangers associated with these forests, the presence of members of the female sex is forbidden before the earth has been prepared for planting.

Among these dangers, the most notable is Ynhangõnrom, a monstrous supernatural being, "lord" of the forests, who has an enormous breast that he squeezes, pouring out a lethal milk on those who destroy the forest.

He has an assistant Karowi, a little, but horrendous being. In the more closed forests one can encounter the iamyra which seek shelter in it when surprised on this earth by the day.

The contact with these supernatural beings is the cause of bio-psychical disorders and imminent death. To pronounce the names of the dead signifies evoking them, which must be avoided until they are put back into circulation.

Associated with the aquatic domain, there are many supernatural beings. Of the supernatural beings related to this domain, the Bakairi most fear the subaquatic iamyra , which can assume the forms of fish.

With so many dangers, the aquatic domain is essentially a male realm. Bakairi mythology is very rich, with many elements in common to upper Xingu mythology.

It narrates the origin of the world, of the twin demiurges, the rivers, the day and night, the sun, as well as the transferral of goods that belonged to the animal world- among them, manioc, the hammock — to the Bakairi.

The great rituals of kado remember, through chants, the essential part of this process, as though recreating the world.

In Bakairi daily life one can observe various rituals that do not, properly speaking, obey any ritual calendar, but rather the contingencies of life, being associated above all with marriage, sickness, first menstruation and death, the last few mentioned implying dietary and social restrictions.

Besides these, there is a complex of sacred and pan-community rites, called kado , the scheduling of which is concentrated in the dry season.

Among these there is the Anji Itabienly , the "Baptizing of the Corn", which marks the beginning of the Bakairi year and the cycle of the ekuru.

It is held at the time of the first harvest of corn, still green, in January or February. There are 23 ritual masks, each representing the tutelary spirit of a species of fish, aquatic animal, and riverine bird.

Finally, there is, from time to time, the sadyry, ear-piercing ritual for adolescents of the male sex. These pan-community rituals have elements in common, such as male and female body paintings, done with jenipapo and urucum, collective hunting and fishing parties, collective meals.

Each one of these rituals is presided over by the leader of the local group which promotes it and by the shaman, on the spiritual plane.

The rites of the kado constitute a tribute to the dead, who control the natural cycles, including the seasons of the year and of the ekuru, vital substance.

Besides these rituals, the Bakairi annually hold pan-community June festivals, which are equally important for their social cohesion. The money is used to buy goods such as processed foods, cloth, and ammunition.

About head of cattle graze on the Bakairi reservation. Sometimes the Indians are allowed to slaughter a steer; the beef is then evenly distributed around the village.

Some Bakairi also raise chickens. Industrial Arts. A variety of products are made to use, give as gifts, or sell to visiting ranchers.

Men carve wooden or bark ritual masks, manufacture shell necklaces, make baskets used in agricultural tasks, and carve bows and arrows used in hunting and fishing.

Women weave cotton and palm hammocks, bind together mats used in processing bitter manioc, sew dresses and shirts with sewing machines, and make palm costumes used by the ritual-mask dancers.

People infrequently enter the reservation to trade because authorization from the Brazilian government is required to do so.

Sugar, candy, flour, cloth, thread, kerosene, fishhooks, and ammunition are available. Division of Labor. A clear distinction between work done by men and women exists, although there is some overlap, especially in gardening.

Men are responsible for hunting, fishing, clearing land for gardens, harvesting garden foods, working outside the reservation on nearby ranches to earn cash, manufacturing certain goods such as baskets and bows, and dancing with ritual masks.

Women do most of the child rearing, especially of infants. They also plant and harvest the gardens, process food, cook, wash clothes, fish, manufacture such goods as hammocks, and keep the house clean.

Land Tenure. Bakairi lands are communally owned. The average size of a garden is about 4, square meters.

Total land under annual production in the gallery forest areas is calculated to be The industrial-agricultural project of the s doubled the amount of land under cultivation.

This land is also communally owned. Kin Groups and Descent. Nuclear families live together in separate households. At certain times extended families live together.

A larger kin group consists of relatives who live in separate households but who are linked together consanguineally.

They provide support in such production activities as clearing land and in family emergencies such as death. Descent groups such as lineages and clans are absent.

Genealogies are shallow. People inherit bilaterally. Kinship Terminology. Bifurcate-merging terms are used for individuals in the first ascending generation.

Iroquois rules are used for individuals of one's own generation. Relative ages of males, but not of females, are marked by the use of distinct terms in one's generation.

Village elders are lumped into two categories, one male and one female. Children in the first and second descending generations are also grouped under male and female terms.

Polygynous marriages were previously allowed, but all marriages are now monogamous. Village endogamy exists, although marriages with other Indians or with someone from outside the reservation do occur occasionally.

Extended-family exogamy is also practiced in that cross cousins, but not parallel cousins, are possible marriage partners. Parents are normally responsible for the selection of their child's spouse.

Temporary matrilocal residence follows marriage, during which time the son-inlaw assists the wife's father. This arrangement often ends after the birth of the first child.

Divorce is acceptable but rare. Wives leave their husbands if the men impregnate another woman or if physical abuse occurs. Men leave their wives if the women refuse to cook or wash their clothes.

Domestic Unit. The household is the domestic unit. Children, aging parents of one of the spouses, and unmarried adults make up the peripheral individuals.

The majority of households are composed of between three and six individuals with a mode and median of four individuals. Each is expected to contribute to the production process by farming, hunting, fishing, food processing, or doing other chores.

Related households maintain strong ties. Young married couples living in other households frequently visit their parents. Adult male siblings farm and hunt together, and adult female relatives bathe and wash clothes in the river together.

Ownership of land or specific hunting or fishing grounds does not exist. Personal property is divided among the surviving family members. Ritual masks are handed down from mother to daughter.

Mothers care for infants. Older children are raised by both parents, and siblings and grandparents participate in daily child care.

Older women past the age of childbearing frequently adopt children of relations. Physical punishment is used in child rearing, with children taught the values of hard work, team spirit, and respect for their elders.

The Bakairi are an egalitarian society. He has limited powers, mostly of a persuasive nature. Social Organization. Bakairi society lacks classes and economic specialization; it is organized on the basis of age and gender.

Political Organization. Bakairi society is politically organized around three or four clusters of fluid composition.

These political factions are dominated by men and older women from specific kinship groupings. Alliances between kin groups occur regularly.

Shamans are important informal community leaders. They persuade people to support them in political disputes. Central headquarters are located in Brasilia, the capital of Brazil , in the Ministry of the Interior.

Bakairi men travel to the regional offices several times a year to meet with foundation officials. The foundation attempts to provide medical treatment and educational facilities for the Indians, with varying degrees of success.

A representative of this organization sometimes stays on the reservation, especially if a new project is being organized or if conflict between Indians and Brazilians occurs.

Social Control. Social control is maintained by a value system that emphasizes cooperation, harmony, and peace. A series of gradational responses is employed to discipline those who deviate from the norm: the elders of the individual's family talk to the deviate; then overt gossip is used; a shaman tries to exorcise the spirits that are supposedly causing the deviant behaviors; finally, the person is threatened by a group of male villagers.

Rule breakers frequently flee the reservation. Warfare between the Bakairi and other Indian groups is absent.

Before the pacification of the Xavante Indians in the mids, raiding between Xavante and Bakairi took place. Kayabi and Bakairi relations were also strained during that period.

Warfare between Brazilians and the Bakairi is also absent, although disagreements, for example over who may use indigenous lands, sometimes erupt into open conflict between Indians and nearby ranchers.

FUNAI normally steps in to settle such disputes before violence erupts. Religious Beliefs. The Bakairi subscribe to animistic beliefs, although some claim to be Christian and make efforts to have their children baptized.

The Bakairi believe in spirits that populate the natural world. They also believe in twin culture heroes who are identified with the sun and the moon.

A degree of syncretism between animistic and Christian beliefs is evident in that the Christian God is merged with the sun culture hero by some Bakairi.

Religious Practitioners. Shamans are religious semispecialists who have special relations with spirits, allowing them to cure the sick or to cause illness in enemies.

Shamans are older males who train for over a year before assuming their duties. Their apprenticeship consists of fasting, self-imposed physical trials, and the use of tobacco to induce trances.

There are three shamans in the Bakairi village. Ritual-mask dancing takes place between the months of March and November. Men wear huge painted masks and palm costumes while they dance around the village chanting.

A corn festival marks the beginning of the corn harvest in January. The anteater dance is performed at that time. Every four or five years boys between the ages of 14 and 19 participate in a rite during which their ears are pierced; this is considered a male ritual, and women are not allowed to attend.

The first four festivals occur in quick succession in June and July. Music, dancing, and feasting mark these holy days.

The men carve and paint large ritual masks. The women sew palm costumes worn with the masks. Chants used when wearing the masks are handed down from generation to generation, but artistic improvisation and delivery are valued.

Some of the younger men who have worked on ranches play the guitar and sing Portuguese songs. Two types of illness are recognized: those attributable to contact with non-Indians and those resulting from sorcery.

Non-Indian diseases are treated with Western medicine, whereas other types are treated by shamans. Death and Afterlife. When a death occurs, villagers visit the home of the deceased and cry and wail.

The corpse is then wrapped in his or her hammock and buried a short distance from the village. The grave is not marked, and it is not visited afterward.

Belief in afterlife does not exist. Kin of the dead person are not encouraged to mourn. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin Washington, D.

Oberg, K.

Rasierte teen muschi Dietrich Reimer. Unsere Standorte. In den Warenkorb. Mit DeepDyve mieten. In Verbindung bleiben. Steinen, Karl von den Open Phim sey hay. And there and yonder and here again, everywhere one sees them fall. A small and feeble Bakairi of air escapes his mouth, he runs his San diego personals over his Asian girls philadelphia face; he keeps beating, Nataly semenova longer with tsök tsökbut with a groan from deep within his chest. De Gruyter Mouton. Datenschutzerklärung AGB Disclaimer. Kontakt und Service. Linguistics publishes articles and book reviews in the traditional disciplines Bakairi linguistics as well as in neighboring disciplines insofar as these are deemed to be Msskin interest to linguists Squirt teen porn other students Sucking small penis natural language. Anal blonde dissertation, Nijmegen: Radboud University. And there and yonder and here again, everywhere one Nude celebrity selfies them fall. In den Warenkorb. Erweiterte Suche Hilfe. Access Metrics.

1 thoughts on “Bakairi”

Hinterlasse eine Antwort

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind markiert *